STIs / STDs
Image result for std
Image result for std

Wiki Created by: Natalie, David, Luke

What is an STI or STD?

STI and STD are acronyms that stand for Sexually Transmitted Infections, as well as Sexually Transmitted Diseases. These phrases may be used interchangeably. An STI is an infection that occurs when bacteria, a parasite, or a virus grow inside your body after engaging in sexual contact. Some STIs can be cured and some cannot be. There are currently 27 different types of STIs to date. The seven most common STIs include HPV (Genital Human Papillomavirus), Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, Gonorrhea, Genital Herpes, Syphilis, and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). All 27 STIs can be found in the table below, in the following categories; Bacterial, Ectoparasitic, Protozoal, and Viral. We're going to cover one STI from each category.

Bacterial:
Ectoparasitic:
Protozoal:
Viral:
1. Bacterial vaginosis
10. Public Lice
13. Amebiasis
17. Cytomegalovirus
2. Chancroid
11. Scabies
14. Cryptospordium
18. Epstein Barr Virus
3. Chlamydia
12. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
15. Giardiasis
19. Hepatitis A
4. Donovanosis

16. Trichomoniasis
20. Hepatitis B
5. Gonorrhea


21. Hepatitis C
6. Lymphogranuloma Venereum


22. Hepatitis D
7. Genital Mycoplasma


23. HSV-1 and HSV-2 (Herpes Simplex Virus)
8. Syphilis


24. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
9. EndemicTreponematosis


25. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)



26. HTLV-1 (Human T- Cell Lymphotropic virus)



27. Molluscum Contagiosum


How do you get an STI?

Anyone may be infected with an STI if they engage in sexual contact. Sharing of needles such as tattooing, piercing, or drug use is also a way STIs are spread. Statistically speaking, 1 out of 4 people in the U.S. between 15- 55 years of age will be infected with an STI at least one time in their life. Two -thirds of all STI's occur in young adults and teens who are under 25. STIs are spread through contact with bodily fluids such as semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and infected mucous membranes or infected skin. This includes open sores inside the mouth or open wounds on the skin. Typically, people get infected with STIs through vaginal, anal , or oral sex, however Scabies and Public Lice can be transferred without sexual contact by being around/ close to an infected person's clothes, towels, or bed linen.

What are the symptoms of an STI?

Contrary to popular belief, a handful of STIs do not show any signs of infection. Each STI comes with its' own set of symptoms, however generally when a person is infected with an STI, they experience pain during urination, blisters or sores around the genital area or mouth, swelling, itching, pain in the abdomen, and sometimes a fever.

How do I avoid getting an STI?

To succeed on staying clear of any STI's, the obvious answer is simply do not engage in sexual contact. If you do however decide to have sex, using these tips will greatly reduce your chance of ever contacting an unwanted guest in your body.
  1. Use condoms every time you engage in any sexual activity --This includes oral sex due to the possibility of spreading by through open sore or wound in the mouth.
  2. Use condoms that have water- based lubricants inside them--Water based lubricants keep the condom from breaking. Condoms with jelly, fat,or oil based lubricants weaken latex and increase the chance of the condom breaking.
  3. Have a conservative number of people you have sexual relations with--An increase in sexual partners increases your chance of being exposed and contacting an STI
  4. Only have sex with people who haven't slept with many people, and who will only have sex with you while you're together. -- If your partner has sex with someone else, contacts an infection, then has sex with you, you will be infected as well.
  5. Don't have sex with a person who has any signs of an STI--Discharge, sores, or rashes are things to take notice of
  6. Ask your partner to get checked for STIs before you have sex


Bacterial STI: Chlamydia

Image result for chlamydia
Image result for chlamydia












What is Chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a small bacterium that invades the mouth, cervix, urethra, anus. It is the number one most common STI.

What are signs of Chlamydia?

Chlamydia can affect both men and women. Chlamydia often does not show symptoms but if symptoms do appear, they will show up weeks after the infection began. Both sexes experience pain during urination, and an abnormal discharge. Sometimes men experience swelling or pain in their testicles. When infected in the anus and symptoms show, people experience discharge, bleeding, and rectal pain.

Treatment

Chlamydia is easily curable with Antibiotics. While taking antibiotics the infected person cannot participate in any sexual relations. Antibiotics will stop the infection, however any permamnt damage done by the bacteria to the body will not be reversed so it is importnant to get treated as soon as possible.

Prognosis

If left untreated, Chlamydia can cause a person to develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. This causes permanent damage to the reproductive organs which means infertility or high risk of developing an ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that happens in Fallopian tubes).


Ectoparasitic STI: Public Lice

Ectoparasitic means a parasite that lives on the surface or exterior of the host**

Picture of pubic louse (crab)
Picture of pubic louse (crab)


What is Public Lice?

Public lice is also known as crabs. They are parasitic insects that live primarily in the genital area.

What are signs of Pubic Lice?

Pubic lice can effect both sexes of all ages including children, and all nationalities. When someone has Pubic Lice they itch heavily. Visible lice as well as their eggs (called nits) can be seen. Sometimes public lice can be found in rough hair such as in a mustache, beard, or coarse leg hair. When an egg hatches it is vcalled a nymph. A nymph eats blood and takes 2-3 weeks to reach adulthood and is then able to reproduce.

Treatment

Crabs is treatable without even having to go to a doctor's office. Over the counter treatments include mousse containing piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins or 1% permenthrin lice killing lotion is used on the area. An Infected person should also wash all of their clothes, change their sheets, towels, and obtain new underwear. Most people only need one treatment.

Prognosis

Proper treatment by following directions on lotions should completely get rid of the public lice. If left untreated, scratching may make the skin raw and that can cause a skin infection.

Protozoal STI: Trichomoniasis

Image result for trichomoniasis
Image result for trichomoniasis

What is Trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is an infection caused by parasitic trichomonads that can effect the vagina and/or the urethra , while in men it effects only the urethra.

What are signs of Trichomoniasis?

Both sexes are able to contract Trich but it is more common in women than in men, especially to older women. It is common to have no symptoms at all, however when symptoms are present, both sexes experience the frequent need to urinate, and discharge. Women experience a foul smelling discharge, redness and swelling, pain during intercourse and urination, as well as spotting. Men experience pain during intercourse and after ejaculation as well as a burning sensation.

Treatment

Trich is easily treatable with antibioltics such as metronidazole or tinidazole. No sexual contact for a week while taking the medication.

Prognosis

If left untreated Trich can effect the tissues around the reproductive system and urinary tract. In pregnant women it can cause preterm labor. It can also cause inflammation and irritation that would make it easier to contact HIV and other STIs.

Viral STI: Hepatitis B (HBV)


Image result for HBV
Image result for HBV


What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is also known as HBV. It is an infection of the liver. Although this is an STI, This can also be acquired through alcohol use, during birth, nursing, and blood transfusions. When a person first is infected it is known as acute HBV. After six months of unsuccessful treatment, the person will then have chronic HBV.

What are signs of Hepatitis B?

Anyone can acquire HBV, the highest affected group are people from ages 19-60. Sub-Saharan African and east Asia have the highest prevalence. Healthcare workers are at great risk due to possible needle stick injury. Sometimes people present no symptoms.Symptoms may present themselves after a couple of weeks after the incubation period. They include flu, vomiting, diarrhea, itchy skin, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).

Treatment

The best way to prevent HBV is to get the vaccine. Once a person has the vaccine they are unable to get the virus. Once someone contacts HBV and is treated, they then have immunity and will not contract it again. There is no treatment for acute HBV besides rest, healthy eating, and fluids. The immune system of the affected individual should clear it out on its own, and a physician will do blood test to confirm the status. If after 6 months pass and the individual still has HBV in their system, they now have chronic HBV. There is treatment for chronic HBV, however it usually does not work. If the treatment doesn't work, the person still must continue to take it for the rest of their life to stop further replication of the virus.

Prognosis

HBV can cause both acute and chronic liver disease, it depends on what age a person gets infected. If a child is below six years of age when they acquire HBV, they are highly likely to have chronic liver disease. If left untreated, cirrhosis and liver cancer are likely to occur.

Sum it all up!

-Anyone can get STIs
-Get tested at your doctor's office or a clinic
-Communicate with your partner to ensure your sexual safety
-Always use protection
-If you are infected, talk to all sexual partners so they can get tested too


STI VIDEO
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=llnXtPZOazM





Instructions STI's

Each student in the group is responsible for three of the topics below. * As a group you are responsible for creating your own Wiki covering the topics assigned. You may attach files, articles, videos, pictures and/or word documents. Be prepared to give your reports orally to the class using your Wik page. Included in your report should be a description of the infectious disease, who it affects, treatment and prognosis.
examples: Clamydia, HPV, Aids, Syphillis, Herpes,

How to use the wiki page
  1. To enter content on this page, click the EDIT tab located on the top, right side of the page.
  2. Enter the information and click Save to save changes.
You can upload or create links to external website or to a page in the wiki.
  1. To upload a file or an image, click the Fileicon on the tool bar, upload the file.
  2. Click the Link icon to enter a link to a url or link to a page in the wiki.